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Pisces Constellation lies in the northern hemisphere, between Aquarius to the west and Aries to the east. It is another one of the zodiac constellations; its brightest star is Eta Piscium. Pisces, being a symbol of mysticism, mystery and creativity, are very frequently featured in ancient legends and myths.
Pisces is a sign of mysticism, mystery and spiritual unknown. Moreover Pisces are extremely highly creative, able to solve problems unconventionally and originally. Their ingeniousness allows to achieve the pursued objectives, giving them a sense of independence. Pisces are also extremely loyal friends. Their sensitivity and unique personality inspire others to action, so Pisces are very valued team workers.
The unique creativity of Pisces was also immortalized in the Greek mythology. As the legend say, when a fire breathing monster, Typhon, was about to devour Aphrodite and her son Eros, they turned into fish and jumped into the Euphrates River to make a great escape. Mother and son tied themselves together with a cord to make sure they would not lose one another and thus avoided death.
The fish theme is also featured in other old cultures. The most famous legend, frequently quoted in children’s books, tells a story of Antenteh and his wife. As the old German legend say, the poor couple lived in a cabin by the sea. One day Antenteh caught a fish. But instead of taking it home, he let it go back to the sea. The astonished fish suddenly started to speak in a human voice, promising the fisherman to fulfill his wishes in return for the release.
Aquarius is the 10th largest constellation in the sky. Its name comes from an Arabic phrase “sa’d al suud”, which means “luck of lucks’. The largest star in Aquarius is Sadalsund, a yellow supergiant. In the Babylonian mythology Aquarius was presented as god Ea, holding an overflowing vase in its hands. Aquarius is a symbol of visionary, unorthodox solutions and intellectual independence.
In Latin there is a phrase closely associated with Aquarius Constellation: Lucida Fortunae Fortunarum, which means the “Brightest Luck of Lucks”. In the Babylonian mythology Aquarius was identified as GU.LA, meaning the “Great One”. For Aquarius are impenetrable riddles. Independence is not just a principal value desired by Aquarius, it is essential to their well being. Aquarius tend to be rebels just for the sake of having their own way, they do not like to follow the commonly accepted rules and norms, boredom being their worst enemy. They welcome changes, love to make people laugh and cheer them up; it makes them feel good to make others feel good. But deep down Aquarius is a loner, an independent and self-reliant visionary who follows his own path.
In the Hellenic culture Aquarius is often associated with Deucalion, son of Prometheus who, advised by Zeus, built a ship and saved his family from flood sent by the ruler of the Olympians. The Greek myth parallels the story of the great flood in Old Testament. In both cases the flood is unleashed to parish people for their misdeeds and sins. In the Egyptian mythology Aquarius represented Hapi, the god of the Nile River, on which depended the life of Egyptians.
Capricorn is the smallest zodiac constellation. It is located in the southern sky, in a part of the sky called the sea or the water. Maybe it was the reason why ancient Sumerians knew Capricorn as a half-goat, half-fish. The brightest star in the Constellation is Deneb Algedi.
Capricorn is the longest of the zodiac signs. Capricorn personalities are very independent, they tend to do things on their own and ambitiously pursue their goals. Capricorns are extremely patient, able to wait for a long time for the things they want. They always strive for the best, hate passivity and boredom. Capricorn personalities are active and uncompromising in manifesting their beliefs and opinions. Ancient Greeks associated the constellation with the forest deity Pan, who continuously fought battles with Typhon.
Typhon, with a hundred dragon heads erupting from his neck and shoulders, was the most deadly and fearsome monster of Greek mythology. In other version of the myth, Typhon was partly human and partly animal, his human upper half reaching as high as the stars, and his hands reaching east and west. Pan was placed in the sky by Zeus in a gratitude for his coming to the other gods’ rescue on several occasions. In the myth Pan eluded the monster by jumping in to the Nile River, which turned the lower part of his body into a fish. Zeus eventually killed Typhon with his Thunderbolts.
Sagittarius Constellation is located between Ophiuchus to the west and Capricorn to the east. The brightest star in the constellation is Kaus Australis. The bow of the archer is formed on the night sky by Delta, Lambda Sagittarii and Epsilon Sagittarii stars. Babylonians thought the Capricorn to be a centaur, half human, half god, who aims its arrow at Antares, the heart of Scorpio, the neighboring constellation.
Sagittarius means archer in Latin. Many ancient cultures represented the mythical Sagittarius as a centaur, personifying power, might and freedom. Not without a reason Sagittarius attaches great significance to freedom: it allows him to maintain autonomy. Freedom is thought to be the only one road to happiness by a Sagittarius. Sagittarius is optimistic and positive, achieving harmony and fulfillment.
Because they value freedom in every sense of the word, Sagittarius personalities have a “live and let live” policy. They like to discover things, are open to changes and new experiences. They are highly optimistic. They believe that no matter what happens the sun will shine tomorrow, so they don’t worry about mere trifles. Good things happen to Sagittarius and they attract good fortune. The ancient Babylonians considered Sagittarius to be Nerigal (or Nergal) god, whom they worshipped.
Scorpio is one of the oldest constellations known to the men. It is located between Libra to the west and Sagittarius to the east. Its brightest star, Antares, forms the heart of the constellation. The Scorpio’s stinger is made up of two other stars, Shaula and Lesath. Scorpio personalities are all about intensity and contradictions. They present a cool, detached and unemotional air to the world, which allows them to find fulfillment as leaders attaining spectacular successes.
Determination and ambition are the hallmarks of Scorpio. Scorpios are fiercely independent. Very often, fighting alone, they are able to accomplish things which are not accomplishable to anybody else. Scorpio also has a rather peculiar sense of humor, often misunderstood by other zodiac signs.
Scorpios are quite unique. They never give up and pursue the desired objectives with full determination; therefore they are perfectly suited for managerial positions. They are excellent at restoring order to even the most chaotic situations. They have a great understanding of the mystery and power of the human mind and extremely seldom lose.
The ancient Roman mythologies attribute great power to Scorpio. In one of the stories Orion, a giant hunter and a great hero, bragged that no creature was able to defeat him. Scorpio was send by gods to deal with Orion and finally killed the boasting hunter. Afterwards Zeus raised Scorpio to heaven and, upon the request of Artemis, did the same with Orion. But those two constellations never appear in the sky at the same time…
Scorpio is one of the few constellations that look like its namesake. The red super giant star, Antares, one of the brightest stars in the sky, is placed just where the scorpion’s heart should be.
Libra is one of zodiac constellations in the southern hemisphere. Zubenelgenubi and Zubeneschamali, which sound like taken straight from “Star Wars”, are two brightest stars of Libra. Interestingly, the Constellation has three stars with planets and one of them, Gelise 585, is the most Earth-like of all planets known in the Universe. In 2008 a high-powered digital radio signal was sent towards Gelise 585 which should reach the planet in early 2029.
The Ancient Romans believed Libra to be a very favorable constellation, ensuring harmony and balance, primarily associated with equal length of night and day and balanced seasons. It was even said that the Moon was located in Libra when Rome was founded, which was to be a harbinger of the empire’s fortune.
Libra has always been associated with balance. About a thousand years before Christ, Babylonians used to call the constellation “The balance of heaven”. A subdued disposition is the distinctive feature of people born under the sign of Libra, for Libras are born and zodiac diplomats. People easily make friends with Libras, who stay committed for life. Libras are very intelligent, welcome changes and love luxury. Many Libras are involved in some sort of artistic or creative pursuits. Being very sociable they feel fulfilled in relationships.
Libra is a very mysterious constellation which has been inspiring scientists for years. A relatively small distance from our planet helped to discover many interesting celestial bodies of Libra. One of them is Gelise 585, a planet which may hold life. Moreover Libra contains the oldest known star in the Milky Way, estimated to be 13.6 billion years old!
This is the second largest constellation in the sky. As a zodiacal constellation it was already known in antiquity, and the brightest star of this constellation, Spica, was the subject of myths and legends in many contemporary civilizations.
Miss epitomizes a man of success who values order and order. In addition, the virgins are extremely honest and truthful. They turn away from dishonest practices and malicious comments. Other people often find loyal partners in them, both on a personal and professional level.
The Virgo constellation is the largest zodiacal constellation and the second largest constellation in the sky. It contains millions of stars. The brightest star of this constellation, Spica (also known as The Ear), has been the subject of legends in almost all mythologies of ancient civilizations. In Greek mythology, the Virgin was identified with Demeter – the goddess of fertility and fertility, as well as with the goddess Dike – a mainstay of justice. The virgin in Greek beliefs was depicted mainly as a woman with a grain of wheat in her hand, symbolizing fertility and prosperity. The brightest star in the constellation Virgo, Spica, was the epitome of the mythological Astarte in ancient Mesopotamia. In ancient Egypt, it symbolized Isis – the goddess of fertility and the guardian of families.
Today, according to astrologers, people born under the sign of this constellation are characterized by high intelligence and ambition, which is why Virgo works well in exact sciences and in professions requiring analytical thinking. The Virgo people are real individualists. They stubbornly strive to set a goal and are constantly seeking to improve the quality of their lives in all its aspects. They are perfect as investors or scientists. They like to be appreciated for their achievements, which is why they often feel the need for recognition and approval from others.
It is one of the largest constellations in the sky. The brightest star in Leo is Regulus, which means “A Little King”. The Constellation was first mentioned as early as 4000 years BC. Leo personalities are the life and soul of every party; people naturally gravitate and surround a Leo, who with his magnetic personality and zest for life infect others with optimism.
Leos are independent, full of energy and warm spirit. They need to be surrounded by people who admire and appreciate them. Sociable Leos are though extremely sensitive. They do not like to be unhappy, so they take matters into their own hands and make things right again. They are also very generous, kind and open-hearted people. It can be said that Leos have a great heart. Ancient Greeks believed that six bright stars of the Constellation, forming the shape of a sickle, in fact represent the lion’s head and the brightest star, Regulus, marks its heart.
Over 4000 years BC Leo Constellation was recognized by practically every civilization of that time. Persians called Leo “Ser” or “Shir”, Turks “Artan”, Syrians “Aryo”, Jews “Arye”. The Hellenic culture associated Leo with a mythical Nemean Lion, a beast living near Corinth, killed by Heracles.
Leo Constellation has always been one of the most commonly known constellations because of its size, which makes it stand out on the night sky. It is quite easy to spot, located between Cancer to the west and Virgo to the east. One of its most prominent features is the presence of double and binary stars.
Cancer constellation inc. Diamond Planet
Cancer Constellation is located between Gemini to the west and Leo to the east. The brightest star of the Constellation is Beta Cancri, also called Tarf or Al Tarf. Cancer personalities have a unique gift of endearing themselves to other people. They are very friendly, able to make others feel good about themselves and loved. Cancers are perfect mothers – in Latin Cancer is a symbol of motherhood.
The ancient Egyptians identified Cancer with a scarab beetle, the sacred emblem of immortality. In the Hellenic mythology Cancer represented a crab sent by Hera to distract Heracles when he was fighting the Lemean Hydra as part of his Twelve Labors. The legend said that when the Crab tried to kill Heracles, he kicked it so hard that it ended up on the sky. On a moonless night, the mythical figure is still easy to spot in late winter or early spring. Cancer Constellation was one of the constellations catalogued by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AC.
Crayfish are very mysterious creatures, and mystery is reflected in the Cancer personality. Harmony is very important to Cancer, it keeps them happy, therefore Cancers are said to be emotionally stable. They are usually very devoted and lifelong friends. Women Cancers are great mothers. No wonder, Cancer is, after all, a symbol of motherhood. Despite being unaffected by problems of this world, Cancers yearn for safety and comfort. Feelings and a broadly understood emotionality are the hallmark of this zodiac sign.
Gemini is fairly easy to spot in the sky and it is one of the few constellations that actually look like their namesake. The Constellation, located in the northern hemisphere, can be seen with the naked eye.
Gemini are highly intelligent and have a strong need to experience the world on their own. They are extremely independent, freedom is essential to their mental well being. They will not be pinned down by anyone or any rules. They are brimming with energy and vitality; they are clever with words, intelligent, very adaptable to every situation.
Gemini constellation was named after the mythical twins Castor and Pollux. Two of the constellation’s brightest stars carry the twin’s names. Even though Gemini are extremely independent, the mythical twins grew up together and after a time became very close, even inseparable. When Castor eventually died in the Trojan War, Pollux was devastated and asked Zeus, his father, to bring him back to life. The ruler of the Olympians listened to his son’s request and decided to make Castor immortal as well and the two of them are together forever. In Antiquity they were seen as the patron saint of sailors, and were said to have been given the power to rescue sailors who were shipwrecked by the all-powerful Poseidon.
Gemini like to live their mark on anyone they meet. They are independent mentors and eagerly share their experiences. In Hindu mythology, Yama and his twin sister Yami, later his wife, were the first couple to inhabit the earth. It shows how high Gemini were rated in the mythical hierarchy. Not without a reason the Gemini were the Ape of the early Chinese solar zodiac, the Ape symbolizing our progenitors.
One of the most prominent and visible of all the constellations, it is also one of the oldest documented sky constellations, dating back to Early Bronze Age. The large and clear Taurus Constellation, visible to the naked eye on the night sky, is located between Aries to the west and Gemini to the east.
Aldebaran is the brightest star in the constellation, and the 14th brightest star in the sky, known as Taurus’s Eye. It hosts two of the nearest open cloisters to Earth, the Pleiades and the Hyades, both visible to the naked eye. Not without a good reason Taurus are identified as stubborn and highly temperamental. The brightest stars of the Pleiades are named after the Seven Sisters of the tempestuous Greek mythology.
Taurus personalities are excellent leaders and, as well known, leaders do not like competition. They want things to get done the way they want them to be done, without any compromises. Even when others have given up, the Taurus rages on. They are perfectly fine on being alone but other people easily follow them, recognizing loyalty and friendliness. Taurus however should never be underestimated; they have a temper underneath the calm surface. In the Ancient Greece, Taurus were identified with Zeus who, like the mythology says, ruled the Olympians and the people. Angry Taurus should never be crossed up.
In the ancient mythology and beliefs, where astronomy played a crucial role, Taurus was rated very high in the hierarchy. In Greek mythology it represents god Zeus, which felt in love with the Phoenician princess Europa. To whisk her away, he transformed himself into a white bull with gold horns. In Babylonian astronomy Aldebaran, the brightest star in the Constellation, was called “The Heavenly Bull”. To the Egyptians, the constellation was a sacred bull that was associated with the renewal of life in spring. Legend holds that Gautama Buddha was born when the Full Moon was in Taurus.
“…those three stars of the airy Giant’s zone,
That glitter burnished by the frosty dark.”
This characteristic layout of three aligned stars is a part of the constellation Orion. Orion’s belt consists of three stars (Mintaka, Alnilam and Alnitak) which are hotter and much more massive than the Sun and their extraordinary brightness makes them one of the most famous stars in the sky. None of them is a single star, but the systems of stars.
Those stars are known as “The Three Marys” in Spain and Portugal.
Orion played a very significant role in legends of the ancient Egyptians. Robert Bauval in his book “The Orion Mystery” claimed that the positioning of the Giza pyramids was the faithful reproduction of three stars in Orion’s belt.
Large and Small Magellanic Clouds
Irregular dwarf satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way galaxy. Both the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud are visible from the southern hemisphere. As early as the ancient times these clouds were described in books of Arabic astronomers. They were named after Ferdinand Magellan, a great explorer, who observed magnificent and spectacular galaxies during his expedition around the world.
The Magellanic Clouds look like detached pieces of the Milky Way, but this apparent detachment is misleading because they are interacting with our galaxy thanks to gravity – they orbit around it as satellite galaxies. Modern astronomers estimate that the Large Magellanic Cloud consist of over 30 billion stars and countless number of globular clusters. It lies around 160 thousand light years from Earth. This galaxy has a total mass of 20 billion times the mass of the Sun. The Small Magellanic Cloud consists of few hundred millions stars and lies 200 thousand light years from our planet.
The Magellanic Clouds have been known since the earliest times to the ancient Middle Eastern people. The first preserved mention of the Large Magellanic Cloud is by the Persian astronomer Al Sufi in the late 1st century. By Europeans, the Clouds were first observed by Portuguese sailors who accompanied the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan.
The Southern Cross, also known as the Crux, is the smallest known constellation. Thanks to its small area and bright stars the Southern Cross is one of the brightest constellations in the sky.
The Southern Cross lies in the southern hemisphere of the sky. Its stars have been used for navigation for ages, but due to the precessional motion of the Earth this constellation is invisible to Europeans. The characteristic feature of this smallest constellation is its striking resemblance to the Latin cross. The brightest stars in this constellation are Acrux and Alpha Crucis.
The Southern Cross is a special and exceptional constellation. It became a national symbol of countries like Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Papua New Guinea or Samoa. The Southern Cross even appears on national flags! The Aboriginal tribes living in Australia considered the Southern Cross as a symbol of animistic ghosts which played a crucial role in their local beliefs. For the Aborigines the Southern Cross was the embodiment of an opossum sitting on the tree.
Thanks to Ptolemy’s records the Southern Cross is known to have been perfectly known in the ancient times. The ancient Greeks considered it as part of the constellation Centaurus. Unfortunately, about 500 AD the constellation Crux became invisible to Southern Europeans.
This famous constellation which was forgotten for centuries returned to grace over one thousand years later in the age of great geographical discoveries. Andrea Corsali, an Italian navigator and spy, marked the Southern Cross on the map during his voyage around Africa. In subsequent years this exceptionally beautiful and bright constellation was commonly marked on astronomical maps and through subsequent centuries it inspired talented painters and artists.
Vega was the first star photographed by the man. Vega is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, the fifth brightest star in the night sky and the third brightest star in the northern hemisphere. Its special nature and brightness draw attention of astronomers in the whole world and inspire science-fiction artists.
In “Contact” directed by Robert Zemeckis, researchers detect a message from extraterrestrial inelegance, sent from the star Vega. The star is located only 25 light years from Earth and is considered to be prestigious among all the celestial objects – 3 times bigger than the Sun, it has more than twice the mass of the Sun and its full luminosity is about 50 times the Sun’s value. It can be seen near the zenith in the mid-northern latitudes during the evening in the Northern Hemisphere summer. Vega was the northern pole star already, and it will be so again!
Vega is one of three stars in the Summer Triangle. The other two stars in the triangle are Deneb and Altari. Since this star plays a special role in the night sky, there are many legends and myths about Vega. In Chinese mythology, there is a love story of Qi Xi in which Niu Lang and his two children are separated from their mother Zhi Nu (Weaving Girl, Vega) who is on the far side of the river, the Milky Way. However, one day per year on the seventh day of the seventh month of the Chinese lunisolar calendar, magpies make a bridge so that Niu Lang and Zhi Nu can be together again for a brief encounter. In Japan it is a love story of a celestial princess Tanabata (Vega), and mortal Kengyu (Altari).
The Andromeda Galaxy is the largest and brightest galaxy in the northern hemisphere. It consists of thousand billion stars. Although this galaxy lies quite far from Earth – over 2.5 million light years, it is visible to the naked eye on a clear starry night. It has been the object of inspiration for science-fiction creators for many years, e.g. it is perfectly known by Star Trek and Superman fans.
The Andromeda Galaxy was first spotted about 964 A.D. by the Persian astronomer al-Sufi, he called it “the little cloud” in his “Book of Fixed Stars”. The first hint of the true nature of the Andromeda Galaxy came late in 1923 when Edwin Powell Hubble definitively established it as an extra galactic object. Andromeda is the largest galaxy of the Local Group, which contains the Milky Way. It is also the nearest spiral galaxy to our Milky Way galaxy. It is also known as Messier 31, M31 or NGC 224. In the centre of the Andromeda Galaxy there is a huge supermassive black hole with a mass of 140 million solar masses.
According to scientists the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way at about 300 km per second. Both galaxies are thus expected to collide in about 4.5 billion years. A likely outcome of collision is that the galaxies will merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy. The fate of the Earth and Solar System in the event of collision is currently unknown.
Sirius is the sky’s brightest star. Sirius is over twenty times brighter than our Sun and is twice as massive! There are many legends, myths and conspiracy theories about this mysterious star as it has aroused people’s interest in the whole world for years.
Sirius, or Dog Star, lies in the Greater Dog constellation and it is one of the highlights of the Winter Triangle comprising Betelgeuse in the constellation of Orion and Procyon in the constellation of Little Dog. The only objects that outshine Sirius in heaven are the Sun, Moon, Venus, Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury. Sirius is one of the nearest stars to us, at only 8.6 light years. Therefore, Sirius is perfectly visible to the naked eye on clear starry nights in winter and spring from almost every place in the world.
Many cultures have historically attached special significance to Sirius. The ancient Egyptians worshiped Sirius as god – they noted that Sirius rose just before the Sun each year immediately prior to the annual flooding of the Nile River. This moment was the beginning of the year according to the then-calendar that was used by over 3 thousand years.
As early as thousand years ago Sirius fascinated and inspired people and it was the subject of clergymen’s in-depth studies. Many Egyptian temples were placed in such direction that the star’s light was seen from the alter. The Great Pyramid of Giza was built in alignment with Sirius and is therefore shining right above the Pyramid. The light behind the All-Seeing eye on the American dollar is from Sirius. Many secret societies are named after the star and Sirius is often associated in Masonic symbolism. Enumerated coded references to this most famous star are in the popular culture.
The North Star, also known as Polaris, has been considered to be the most important star in the sky for ages. In contrary to other stars, this star seems to stand motionless. In the ancient times this proud and majestic queen of the northern sky was a guide for navigation, therefore it is commonly known as the Sea Star.
The North Star is a naked-eye star nearest to the celestial north pole. As a result of the change of direction of Earth’s rotation, various stars in various periods become the North Star. At present, the North Star is Alfa Ursae Minoris, the brightest star in the constellation Smaller Bear. In 5 thousand years the Northern Star will be Alfa Dra, Thuban in the constellation Dragon and in 12 thousand years Vega, the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, will become the North Star. The star in the constellation Small Bear will be again the nearest to the celestial north pole in roughly 25 thousand years. The North Star has a very prestigious position in the hierarchy of celestial objects. Therefore, in the ancient times this star was also known as the Heaven’s Door.
As a result of characteristic precessional motion of our plant the North Star embodies the unique position in the night sky. Usually only the brightest stars in a given constellation can become the Heaven’s Door. The distance between Earth and the North Star is over one thousand light years. Only the largest celestial objects from a specific constellation can be Stella Maris.
In the ancient times people did not have any complex navigation equipment. The only reference point in the night sky was the North Star used by travellers to find the northern direction. The North Star was a guide which contrary to other stars did not change its position in the night sky (it always lies in the north). When other stars are subject to principles of physics, the North Star seems to be majestic and dominant.
The Milky Way’s black hole
Some scientists believe that black holes are the gates to other universes. It is interesting that Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicts the existence of black holes that ostensibly allow space travels.
The Milky Way’s black hole is a supermassive black hole located just outside our front door – it lies about 25-28,000 light years
away from Earth.
Black holes exist not only in our galaxy, but also everywhere in the universe. However, scientists are not able to observe this space time area that prevents anything, even light, from escaping. Astronomers can specify whether black holes exist in a given area by detecting their effect on other matter nearby.
It is worth mentioning that black holes can be of one atom size, but also of hundreds of thousand or even million solar masses. According to scientists the Milky Way’s black hole has a mass of over 4 million solar masses. It is also known that black holes are permanently expanding by feeding on hundreds of thousands tonnes of matter. However, the Earthlings do not need to worry about the extermination caused by black holes as it is impossible or even ridiculous. Many millions of years need to pass until this scenario becomes real.
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